O papel social da religião mudou

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Dessa forma, grupos fundamentalistas continuamente tentam intervir no espaço escolar a fim de garantir a prevalência de sua visão de mundo em detrimento de outras. Um dos maiores exemplos dessa agenda é o movimento Escola Sem Partido, criado em 2004, que já chegou a inspirar diversos projetos de lei propondo a proibição da veiculação no espaço escolar de quaisquer valores divergentes daqueles da unidade familiar. Podemos entender essas afirmações à luz do mito cristão da queda humana, que afirma que logo após a queda do homem, no momento em que fora lançado fora do paraíso, Deus determina que o homem trabalhe para sustentar a instituição familiar, enquanto que a mulher servirá para gerar vida. Apesar de a contemporaneidade ser portadora de novos mitos, como o da supremacia da ciência, essas idéias religiosas não perderam sua influência cultural no processo de sacralização das representações sociais sobre a masculinidade. Visa compreender a influência das idéias religiosas na construção social da identidade masculina.

Esta é uma entre outras indicações de que o ritual e não a crença era o centro da religião romana. Na Mesopotâmia também é possível constatar a influência da religião no convívio socia e na política. A Mesopotâmia surge entre dois rios importantes, Tigre e Eufrates, que nasciam nas montanhas da Armênia e desaguavam no golfo pérsico (FUNARI, 2010, p.28) a fertilização da terra em torno dos rios, favoreceu a prática da agricultura. Isso foi de extrema importância para fixação de povos naquela região, pois, eram comunidades independentes que viviam no nível de subsistência, até a necessidade de uma organização para cuidar o que se excedia.

Saúde

No Brasil, um dos blocos componentes do Congresso de maior expressão, tanto em número de parlamentares quanto em influência interna e popular, constitui-se como a Frente Parlamentar Evangélica. Seus projetos e pautas são, frequentemente, baseados em princípios religiosos, como o ensino moral e a proibição do casamento entre pessoas do mesmo sexo, da eutanásiae do aborto (Fábio, 2018). Assim, nesse primeiro capitulo, Libanio instiga aos que são estudantes de teologia a uma orações inquietação e a uma postura de respostas às razoes de nossa fé. Essas respostas devem ter uma implicação direta na prática pastoral que cada um de nós desempenha. Resenha da obra de João Batista Libanio, Crer num mundo de muitas crenças e pouca libertação,… Na avaliação de Rita Gross, apesar do domínio histórico dos homens no campo dos estudos da religião, as estudiosas feministas foram bem-sucedidas em seus esforços para estabelecer uma presença respeitada e influente.

Podem existir talvez (discute-se muito sobre isso), sociedades sem Estado, isto é, sem uma autoridade burocrática, impessoal e formal. Não há, no entanto, sociedades sem liderança política, sem chefes que guiem a vida em comum. Com efeito, o próprio bom funcionamento da sociedade exige a existência dessa autoridade. Portanto, não se olvida a forte influência da religião no convívio social e da política nos Estados ao longo da história chegando aos tempos atuais. Cabe ressaltar que a superstição era o oposto da religião porque implicava formas de comportamento e crenças religiosas que não podiam ser controladas e monitoradas.

Qual é o papel social da religião?

Todos os âmbitos da vida humana vêm sofrendo mudanças significativas ao longo de tantas décadas. Continuando suas reflexões, o livro apresenta também a diversidade de formas religiosas que se apresentam na sociedade de hoje. Essa diversidade, que conta com as clássicas denominações religiosas, apresenta, ao mesmo tempo, fascínio e medo. A experiência do sagrado, muitas vezes, apresenta-se, também, de forma velada nos eventos de culto ao corpo, grandes eventos musicais ou desportivos, enfim. Tentar contribuir […] para a elucidação da lógica social que preside a estruturação dessas atitudes e desses comportamentos religiosos ditos “femininos”. Lógica social que a ideologia dominante – servida em primeiro lugar pelo discurso oficial das instituições religiosas – oculta e reforça, imputando tais atitudes e comportamentos à ordem eterna da natureza, identificada à vontade divina, e que define para a mulher uma vocação específica.

Educação ambiental e resíduos sólidos

A esse movimento de transformação as autoras chamam de “conversão espiritual”, fenômeno que abrange aspectos que vão além da conversão religiosa. A religião sempre esteve ligada ao ser humano, podemos dizer que está praticamente inerente ao mesmo. O homem, ao se deparar com o mundo, se indaga sobre a sua existência, a partir do despertar e construção da sua consciência e, desta forma ao se confrontar com o mistério do mundo, encontra neste, uma sacralidade. Seu relacionamento com a natureza é direto, é sua fonte imediata de sobrevivência e de perigo. A própria vida e morte são grande mistério, então, o homem primitivo passa a ressignificar o processo da vida através das perspectivas religiosas, e é isto que lhe dá sentido e direção. No entanto, é também necessário que atentemos nos efeitos psicológicos do fanatismo religioso.

Por fim, proporemos uma análise, articulada aos conceitos psicanalíticos expostos, do papel da secularização na conjuntura exposta, tomando como exemplo paradigmático a teologia da prosperidade. Nesse sentido, visamos a apontar como certos paradigmas da secularização possivelmente reorganizaram pontos norteadores das relações estabelecidas entre religião e política no contemporâneo brasileiro. A particularidade religiosa da umbanda, diz o autor, nem africana nem cristã, pode ser a expressão de um patrimônio cultural pujante e digno da realidade social brasileira. Ela comporta processos de inclusão social e pode ser um meio de elaboração de experiências sociais traumáticas para significativos grupos sociais brasileiros. Para o pesquisador, a umbanda é ainda uma oportunidade excelente para refletir formas sociais e alternativas de resistência étnica e cultural. “A história cultural brasileira pode ser aprendida e apreendida não apenas em livros de história, mas também em terreiros de umbanda.

Religião

Os estudos fundamentam-se na dimensão social da religião e na dimensão religiosa da sociedade. A Sociologia da Religião tem como principais nomes Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, Ernst Troeltsch, Max Weber e Peter Berger. Naturalmente, o processo de socialização não se dá rapidamente e de imediato, mas gradualmente e por etapas. Os principais agentes responsáveis pela socialização são as chamadas instituições sociais, isto é, aquelas estruturas e organizações básicas que sustentam e organizam o funcionamento da vida coletiva. Essas estruturas são coercitivas, exercem pressão sobre os indivíduos e punem os desviantes.

Até 1890, poderiam existir outras religiões e crenças no Brasil, mas não havia a liberdade de culto. Ou seja, outras religiões que não fosse o catolicismo, não poderiam fazer cultos ou rituais públicos. A população brasileira é majoritariamente cristã, sendo sua maior parte católica, devido à colonização portuguesa.

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